GRO Biosciences

GRO Biosciences is leveraging breakthrough technologies from computational protein design and synthetic biology to develop best-in-class protein therapeutics with enhanced properties. The company has established multiple genomically recoded strains of bacteria that can incorporate non-standard amino acids into proteins to confer increased potency, stability, and targeted delivery. GRO Biosciences is applying its technology platform to develop improved protein therapeutics for diabetes, growth disorders and autoimmunity. The company, founded by Dr. George Church, is located at the Harvard Life Lab, a shared laboratory space for high-potential life sciences and biotechnology startups founded by Harvard faculty, alumni, students, and postdoctoral scholars.


The GRO Biosciences platform comprises seminal, peer-reviewed work by the company's co-founders across synthetic biology, chemical biology, and computational protein design.


Thyer R, Shroff R, Klein DR, d'Oelsnitz S, Cotham VC, Byrom M, Brodbelt J, Ellington A (2018) Custom selenoprotein production enabled by laboratory evolution of recoded bacterial strainsNature Biotechnology, EPub ahead of print.

Ostrov N, Landon M, Guell M, Kuznetsov G, Teramoto J, Cervantes N, Zhou M, Singh K, Napolitano MG, Moosburner M, Shrock E, Pruitt BW, Conway N, Goodman DB, Gardner C, Tyree G, Gonzales A, Wanner BL, Norville J, Lajoie MJ, Church GM (2016) Design, Synthesis and Testing Towards a 57-Codon Genome. Science 353(6301):819-22. PMID: 27540174

Zheng Y, Lajoie MJ, Italia JS, Chin M, Church GM, Chatterjee A (2016) Performance of optimized noncanonical amino acid mutagenesis systems in the absence of release factor 1. Mol Biosyst. 2016 Mar 30. PMID: 27027374

Feng J, Jester BW, Tinberg CE, Mandell DJ, Antunes MS, Chari R, Morey KJ, Rios X, Medford JI, Church GM, Fields S, Baker D (2015). A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes. eLife, 4(e10606). PMID: 26714111

Thyer R, Robotham SA, Brodbelt JS, Ellington AD (2015) Evolving tRNA(Sec) for efficient canonical incorporation of selenocysteine. J Am Chem Soc 137, 46-49. PMID: 25521771

Mandell DJ, Lajoie MJ, Mee MT, Takeuchi R, Kuznetsov G, Norville J, Gregg CJ, Stoddard BL, Church GM (2015) Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design. Nature. PMID: 25607366

Napolitano MG, Gregg CJ, Lajoie MJ, Landon MM, Govindarajan LN, Mosberg JA, Kuznetsov G, Goodman DB, Vargas O, Isaacs FJ, Soll D, Church GM (2015) Emergent rules for codon choice elucidated by editing rare arginine codons in E. coli. PNAS. PMID: 27601680

Gregg CJ, Lajoie MJ, Napolitano MG, Mosberg JA, Goodman DB, Aach J, Isaacs FJ, Church GM (2014) Rational Optimization of tolC as a Powerful Dual Selectable Marker for Genome Engineering. Nucleic Acids Research. PMID: 24452804

Lajoie MJ, Kosuri S, Mosberg JA, Gregg CJ, Zhang D, Church GM (2013) Probing the limits of genetic recoding in essential genes. Science 342: 361-3. PMID: 24136967

Lajoie MJ, Rovner AJ, Goodman DB, Aerni HR, Haimovich AD, Mercer JA, Wang HH, Carr PA, Mosberg JA, Rohland N, Schultz PG, Jacobson JM, Rinehart J, Church GM, Isaacs FI (2013) Genomically Recoded Organisms Impart New Biological Functions. Science 342: 357-60. PMID: 24136966